There are certain Compulsory Requirements for attending our training as follows :
We recommend that you acquire the necessary knowledge. You may do it during our free seminars and individual consultations. If this is not the option for you, start with looking for a trade agent (an intermediary buyer who buys in one country and sells to another. They do no marketing of your company.) by carefully advertising your products or services online (e.g. alibaba.com, linkedin.com), or using web advertising tools from Google, Yahoo and/or Microsoft.
Then act according to the situation on a case-by-case basis (e.g. import your products). You will get some return on investment in advertising but don't expect immediate results and continuous returns. Contact us to learn how to build steady channels of revenue from foreign markets.
SEO is a term that covers a variety of different techniques, all with an aim of getting a website highly ranked in the results provided by search engines like Google and Bing.
Search engine optimisation should be viewed as more of an art than a science, since the actual algorithms used by the search engines are carefully guarded secrets. However, there are numerous methods that most SEO experts agree will help your site perform better in search results. For example:
• Do some keyword research
Knowing what words and phrases your potential customers type into the search box on their web browser is a good place to start. Make sure these words are used on your website - just remember to keep your keyword use to a natural level. 'Stuffing' can have negative effects on your search ranking.
• Get to grips with meta data
Learn what a title tag and meta description are and make sure they're customised for every page on your site. Not only are these good for SEO, they also determine the text people see in the search results. Image titles and alt tags are also good places for keywords.
• Start a blog
The search engines like it when you update or add to your content regularly, and what better way to do that than with a blog? Try to post an informative and useful post at least once a week - although more often is ideal.
• Make connections on social media
Sites like Twitter, Facebook and Google+ are increasingly important when it comes to search results, so get social with your online community.
• Build links naturally
Inbound links to your website are a major element in how search engines rank your page, so take steps to improve linking. Try guest blogging or creating blog posts that readers will want to share with others. But beware of 'buying' links, as this can do more harm than good to your SEO efforts.
There is much more to negotiation effectively than preparing your mind for it. There are other ingredients of a successful negotiation, and they are highlighted below:
Anti Dumping Duty means a penalty imposed on suspiciously low-priced imports, to increase their price in the importing country and so protect local industry from unfair competition.
Anti-dumping duties are assessed generally in an amount equal to the difference between the importing country's FOB price of the goods and (at the time of their importation) the market value of similar goods in the exporting country or other countries.
A document issued by a carrier, or its agent, to the shipper as a contract of carriage of goods. It is also a receipt for cargo accepted for transportation, and must be presented for taking delivery at the destination.
CEPA stands for Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement and CECA stands for Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement. Recently India signed a CEPA with Japan and CECA with Malaysia. India had also signed a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) with South Korea. With Singapore signed CECA. The terms that make difference are “Cooperation” and “partnership”. Both these terms are synonymous with each other but the major “technical” difference between a CECA and CEPA is that CECA involves only “tariff reduction/elimination in a phased manner on listed / all items except the negative list and tariff rate quota (TRQ) items” , CEPA also covers the trade in services and investment, and other areas of economic partnership. So CEPA is a wider term that CECA and has the widest coverage.Please note that usually CECA is signed first with a country and after that negotiations may start for a CEPA. For example, India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (CECA) was signed in December, 1998 and came into operation since March, 2000. India completed the tariff elimination programme in March 2003, Sri Lanka scheduled to reach zero duty by 2008. After that the two countries have since initiated negotiations in August 2004 on comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) which covers trade in services and investment.
FTAs are arrangements between two or more countries or trading blocs that primarily agree to reduce or eliminate customs tariff and non tariff barriers on substantial trade between them. FTAs, normally cover trade in goods (such as agricultural or industrial products) or trade in services (such as banking, construction, trading etc.).FTAs can also cover other areas such as intellectual property rights (IPRs), investment, government procurement and competition policy, etc.
Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA): In a PTA, two or more partners agree to reduce tariffs on agreed number of tariff lines. The list of products on which the partners agree to reduce duty is called positive list. India MERCOSUR PTA is such an example. However, in general PTAs do not cover substantially all trade.
Free Trade Agreement (FTA): In FTAs, tariffs on items covering substantial bilateral trade are eliminated between the partner countries; however each maintains individual tariff structure for non-members. India Sri Lanka FTA is an example. The keydifference between an FTA and a PTA is that while in a PTA there is a positive list of products on which duty is to be reduced; in an FTA there is a negative list on which duty is not reduced or eliminated. Thus, compared to a PTA, FTAs are generally more ambitious in coverage of tariff lines (products) on which duty is to be reduced.
Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) and Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA): These terms describe agreements which consist of an integrated package on goods, services and investment along with other areas including IPR, competition etc. The India Korea CEPA is one such example and it covers a broad range of other areas like trade facilitation and customs cooperation, investment, competition, IPR etc.
Custom Union: In a Customs union, partner countries may decide to trade at zero duty among themselves, however they maintain common tariffs against rest of the world. An example is Southern African Customs Union (SACU) amongst South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia, Botswana and Swaziland. European Union is also an outstanding example.
Common Market: Integration provided by a Common market is one step deeper than that by a Customs Union. A common market is a Customs Union with provisions to facilitate free movements of labour and capital, harmonize technical standards across members etc. European Common Market is an example.
Economic Union: Economic Union is a Common Market extended through further harmonization of fiscal/monetary policies and shared executive, judicial & legislative institutions. European Union (EU) is an example.
Early harvest scheme is a precursor to a free trade agreement (FTA) between two trading partners. This is to help the two trading countries to identify certain products for tariff liberalisation pending the conclusion of FTA negotiation. It is primarily a confidence building measure.
A good example of an EHS is between India and Thailand signed in October 2003, wherein 83 products were identified to be reduced to zero in a phased manner. The EHS has been used as a mechanism to build greater confidence amongst trading partners to prepare them for even bigger economic engagement
The major bilateral and regional agreements of India are:
Source: Compiled from Commerce Ministry web site “Trade Agreements” and Srivastava. Ajay, Chapter 27, Free Trade Agreements, Business Impact of WTO, FTAs and other International Trade Issues
Countries negotiate Free trade Agreements for a number of reasons.
• By eliminating tariffs and some non-tariff barriers FTA partners get easier market access into one another's markets.
• Exporters prefer FTAs to multilateral trade liberalization because they get preferential treatment over non-FTA member country competitors. For example in the case of ASEAN, ASEAN has an FTA with India but not with Canada. ASEAN's custom duty on leather shoes is 20% but under the FTA with India it reduced duties to zero. Now assuming other costs being equal, an Indian exporter, because of this duty preference, will be more competitive than a Canadian exporter of shoes. Secondly, FTAs may also protect local exporters from losing out to foreign companies that might receive preferential treatment under other FTAs.
• Possibility of increased foreign investment from outside the FTA. Consider 2 countries A and B having an FTA. Country A has high tariff and large domestic market. The firms based in country C may decide to invest in country A to cater to A's domestic market. However, once A and B sign an FTA and B offers better business environment, C may decide to locate its plant in B to supply its products to A.
India has preferential access, economic cooperation and Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with about 54 individual countries. India has signed bilateral trade deals in the form of Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA)/Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)/FTA/Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) with some 18 groups/countries. India is a late, and cautious, starter in concluding comprehensive preferential tariff agreements covering substantially all trade with some of its trading partners.
The exporters would need to apply to the authorized agencies for issuance of the certificate of origin. The fee structure i.e. for the sale of blank form, certification fee and other charges (such as tatkal services) are available on the website of Export Inspection Council (EIC) at